Hallmarks of Cancer The Next Generation pdf download

03-30-2024 comment

The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep develop-ment of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and acti-vating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hall-mark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list—reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hall-mark traits by creating the ‘‘tumor microenvironment.’’ Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.

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The CES-D Scale pdf download

The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive sym ptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are sym ptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer...
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