ISO 19679:2016 pdf download

11-24-2020 comment

ISO 19679:2016 pdf free download.Plastics — Determination of aerobic biodegradation of non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/sediment interface — Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide.
ISO 19679:2016 specifies a test method to determine the degree and rate of aerobic biodegradation of plastic materials when settled on marine sandy sediment at the interface between seawater and the seafloor, by measuring the evolved carbon dioxide.
Products made with biodegradable plastics are designed to be recovered by means of organic recycling in composting plants or in anaerobic digesters. The uncontrolled dispersion of biodegradable plastics in natural environments is not desirable. The biodegradability of products cannot be considered as an excuse to spread wastes that should be recovered and recycled. However, test methods to measure rate and level of biodegradation in natural environments (such as soil or the marine environment) are of interest in order to better characterize the behaviour of plastics in these very particular environments. As a matter of fact, some plastics are used in products that are applied in the sea (e.g. fishing gear) and sometimes they can get lost or put willingly in marine environment. The characterization of biodegradable plastic materials can be enlarged by applying specific test methods that enable the quantitative assessment of biodegradation of plastics exposed to marine sediment and seawater. Plastic products are directly littered or arrive with fresh waters in the pelagic zone (free water). From there, and depending on density, tides, currents, and marine fouling plastics may sink to the sublittoral, and reach the seafloor surface. Many biodegradable plastics have a density higher than 1 and therefore tend to sink. The sediment passes from aerobic to anoxic and finally anaerobic conditions going from the surface (the interface with seawater) into deeper layers, displaying a very steep oxygen gradient.
This test method is based on the determination of evolved carbon dioxide and derives from Iso 14852. The testing medium is based on a solid phase and a liquid phase. The solid phase is a sandy marine sediment laid in the bottom of a closed flask; the liquid phase is a column of natural or artificial sea water, poured on the sediment. The test material is preferably in the form of a film to be laid down on top of the sediment, at the interface between the solid phase and the liquid phase. This is a simulation of an object that has sunk and finally reached the sea floor. The system is contained in a closed flask.
The carbon dioxide evolved during the microbial degradation is determined by a suitable analytical method. The level of biodegradation is determined by comparing the amount of carbon dioxide evolved with the theoretical amount (ThCO2) and expressed in percentage. The test result is the maximum level of biodegradation, determined from the plateau phase of the biodegradation curve. The principle of a system for measuring evolved carbon dioxide is given in ISO 14852:1999, Annex A.
The details of interlaboratory testing based on the test method specified in this international Standard are available in Reference [5].

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